Why December 6th?
Friends of the Phonograph celebrate the Phonograph's birthday on December 6 to mark the December 6, 1877 completion of Edison's Phonograph.
FACTOLA: On December 6, 1877 at Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey Laboratory Thomas Alva Edison's Phonograph was said to be "finished" (1) and ready to be heard by the world.
FACTOLA: On December 7, 1877 Edison's infant invention was taken to the offices of Scientific American where the Phonograph introduced itself. This debut of the machine that Edison would later call his "favorite invention" and his "baby"(2), was subsequently described in the December 22, 1877 issue of Scientific American.
The Phonograph's Birthday Timeline
Edison's phonograph timeline includes other important dates besides December 6, some of which have been cited in various calendars and books as the birthday of the Phonograph.
The following historic markers are dates related to the Phonograph's scientific history, conception, telephonic repeater experiments, tin foil phonograph construction, testing, demonstrations, patents and 100th anniversary first day postal covers.
March 25, 1857 - Édouard-Léon Scott patented his Phonautograph. The phonautograph is the earliest known device for recording sound. At the time it was not the intention of Scott to reproduce sound but rather to study what sound waves looked like.
April 9, 1860 - The first line of Au clair de la lune was recorded by Édouard-Léon Scott on his Phonautograph. These recorded words are "the earliest clearly recognizable record of the human voice yet recovered (though these words were not actually heard until 2008 with the help of computer technology).
April 30, 1877 - Charles Cros submits a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method for recording and reproducing sound. Although this envelope was not opened until December 3, 1877, Cros should be credited "with anticipating, though barely, what Edison was to accomplish" (12) and describing an invention which he named the Paleophone (voix du passé).
July 17, 1877 - The Speaking Telegraph - Edison Lab Notes (3) reads: "Glorious = Telephone perfected this morning 5 am = articulation perfect -- got 1/4 column newspaper every word. -- had ricketty transmitter at that -- we are making it solid." (Note: The Philadelphia Inquirer for Tuesday, 17 July ,1877, ran an article describing the rehearsal at the Permanent Exhibition).
Phonograph historian Patrick Feaster notes that on this date "Edison and his associates sketched out the principle of phonographic sound" (4).
July 18, 1877 - Edison "announces" his intention to invent the phonograph (5)
The Thomas A. Edison Papers Project describes the July conception of the future Phonograph as follows (6):
End of July 1877 - Edison "constructed a paraffin paper device called a telephonic repeater" which in the "course of many experiments thought he could hear the sound of human voices or music when the strip of paper moved quickly beneath the spring-driven point. Inspired, he quickly yelled "Halloo" into the crude mouthpiece, and was completely taken aback when the machine faintly imitated him moments later. (7)
August 12, 1877 - The Library of Congress' website America's Story assigns this as the "date popularly given for Thomas Edison's completion of the model for the first phonograph. (8). See reference 7 (above).
November 29, 1877 - Basic sketch of the Phonograph completed that apparently was the "sketch that his workman, John Kruesi, used to construct the first tin-foil model." (9)
First sketch of the Phonograph - November 29, 1877 (courtesy A. Koenigsberg, Edison Cylinder Records, 1889 - 1912)
December 4, 1877 - "Kruesi made phonograph today." (10)
December 6, 1877 - "Kruesi finished the phonograph." (1)
December 7, 1877 - Phonograph taken to offices of Scientific American for first public demonstration
The Thomas A. Edison Papers Project (11) describes the events of December 6 and 7 as follows:
December 15, 1877 - Edison's application for Phonograph patent executed
December 22, 1877 - Scientific American publishes story about Edison's Phonograph
December 24, 1877 - Edison patent for Phonograph filed
February 19, 1878 - Patent no. 200,521 granted for Edison's Phonograph
April 18, 1878 - Edison in Washington D.C. to demonstrate his Phonograph to the National Academy of Sciences.
Thomas Edison seated with his "Brady" tin-foil Phonograph, April 18, 1878 in the studio of Matthew Brady.
Standing left to right are Uriah Painter and Charles Batchelor. Courtesy of Edison National Historic Site
First Day Commemorative Dates for Centennial of Sound Recording from around the world
February 16, 1977 - First Day of Issue for Centennial of Sound Recording - Germany - Unknown why this date was selected
March 23, 1977 - First Day of Issue for Centennial of Sound Recording - US Postal Service (see below for one of the first day covers that includes identification of December 6, 1877 as the date Edison's first words were recorded on his Phonograph). March 23, 1977 was chosen as the official date for the stamp's issue "to coincide with with an award dinner in Washington, D.C. by the Recording Industries Association of America." Nothing historic about the phonograph happened in March 1877 and many other anomalies are also part of this stamp's issuance and design. See The Antique Phonograph Monthly, January 1977 (Vol. V No.1) for a detailed review of this anniversary stamp.
July 20, 1977 - First Day of Issue for 100 Years of Phonograph - India Postal Service (see below for postal service technical data sheet related to this stamp)
December 29, 1977 - 100 Years of Sound Recording - Uraquay
September 5, 1981 - Wallis et Futuna issued stamp with Edison and his tinfoil phonograph - first day cover honoring Thomas Edison postmarked September 5, 1981 (perhaps for 50 years after his death on October 18, 1931 but also noting that Edison's First Phonograph was in 1878).
2016 Sierra Leone stamp noting Phonograph birthday as 1877