Every gallery in Phonographia has multiple facts connected with the phonograph. Some are identified as FACTOLAS. This is their summary list.
FACTOLA 1 The Phonograph changed the human perception of ephemeral sound.
FACTOLA 2 The Phonograph was a machine that started a social and cultural revolution. Records revolved and played "bottled up" music and speech anytime, anywhere and as often as you wanted.
FACTOLA, March 30, 1878 - The March 30, 1878 issue of Harper's Weekly has an article and an ad which would have been considered on its own as a somewhat random and tenuous connection between John Rogers, the sculptor of "The Travelling Magician" and Thomas A. Edison, Wizard and inventor of the Phonograph.
Read the details here for why this March 30, 1878 Harper's Weekly connection was documented after a later connection was found, reinforcing an interest in documenting Edison-Rogers connections.
FACTOLA, July, 1879 - The first phonograph used in a United States post office as customer communication support was in Leadville, Colorado.
FACTOLA, November 1888 - The first attempt to record a public speech by means of the phonograph was made Thursday evening at a democratic rally in the Park rink in Orange, New Jersey. Eighteen cylinders were used with 'slight breaks" between changing of the cylinders. The cylinders were said to each last about seven minutes. The portions of the speeches taken were nearly two hours long. The phonograph was operated by Theodore Wangemann and an assistant, both connected with the Edison Laboratory. (probably November 1 or November 8, 1888).
FACTOLA, April 20, 1891 - First attempt to introduce a new way to speculate in stocks using the Phonograph to place orders. Also see The Phonograph Leak for an example of how the phonograph speculation game, aka clock game, operated and went wrong for the San Francisco Public Stock Exchange.
FACTOLA, April 13, 1893 - The horse "Phonograph" came in first at the Elizabeth race track paying five to one.
FACTOLA, March 1898 - Russell Hunting, whose legacy included his "Casey" series of records, started his own company, RUSSELL HUNTING. As General Sales and Purchasing Agent his Cable Address was "PHONOCASEY NEW YORK."
FACTOLA, April 1898 - The cable address for The Edison Phonograph Agency in New York, N.Y. " FUSE, New York."
FACTOLA, May 1898 - The cable address for Maguire & Baucus, Limited, selling agents for T. A. Edison for all the genuine Edison and Lumiere military and Naval films carried in stock, Edison Phonograph Agency in New York, N.Y. was "Cousinhood," New York and London.
FACTOLA, October 1898 - The cable address for William Roche, manufacturer of batteries for phonograph motors was "ROBAT."
FACTOLA, January 1899 - The cable address for C. E. Stevens, Selling Agent for Phonographs and "all apparatus manufactured at the Edison Laboratory and genuine Edison goods, was "ESTABAN."
FACTOLA, February 1899 - The cable address for the Phonograph Sapphire Co., makers of "Jones" Jewels for all Talking-Machines was "JOSSAPH NEW YORK."
FACTOLA, March 1899 - The cable address for Reed, Dawson & Co., makers of first-class original RECORDS, was "REDAW."
FACTOLA, October 1899 - Cable Address for The Polyphone Co., and Leon F. Douglass, Vice-President Chicago, U.S.A. was "POLYPHONE, CHICAGO."
FACTOLA, November 1899 - Cable Address for American Talking Machine Co., was "TWINEAST NEW YORK."
FACTOLA, December 1899 - Cable Address for the American Micrograph Co. was "MICRO" N.Y.
FACTOLA, August 15, 1908 - "Probably the highest graphophone store in the world" is in Silver Plume, Colorado "over 9,000 feet above the sea level..."
FACTOLA, April 1909 - The royal Swedish academy presented Thomas A. Edison with the Adelskiold gold medal for his inventions in connection with phonograph and the incandescent light.
FACTOLA, 1917 - Phonograph apparatus used to record heart beats of a French soldier during World War I. The Pathe Phonograph Co. and the French government hoped recordings would provide detailed information of the physical stamina of the soldiers in the French army. "The minutest irregularity in the heart beats is instantly detected."
FACTOLA, March 1918 - The play "Why Marry?" is believed to be the first time the complete play has been recorded on talking machine records by all actors in the play.
FACTOLA, October 1918 - The only authentic sounds of the First World War are said to be the recording of the gas shell bombardment by the Royal Garrison Artillery, 9th October 1918, preparatory to the British Troops entering Lille, France.
FACTOLA, April 1920 - The first record lifter on the market - The Vacuum Record Lifter "raises the record without touching the tone arm..."
FACTOLA, 1956 - Phonograph records were put on cereal boxes as a premium to cut-out and play. According to mrbreakfast.com and Discogs the first records were on General Mills' Wheaties cereal boxes in 1956, 78 RPM cut-outs for Walt Disney's Mouseketeer Records of Chip 'N Dale performing "Ten Little Indians" and "The Laughing Song."
FACTOLA, 1964 - A circa 1910 gramophone horn was being used for the cover of a storm cellar's air vent in Cotesfield, NE.
FACTOLA, 1971 - "Would you believe..." the Columbia Record & Tape Club offered LPs and 8-track cartridges and tape cassettes and 7" reel-to-reel tapes as new record club options in the 1970's?
FACTOLA, March 2016 - Walt Whitman did not record his poem "America" or make any phonograph record.
FACTOLA: In Mari Sandoz's "recollection" short story The Christmas of the Phonograph Records her father's extravagant and much anticipated Phonograph is delivered to their isolated homestead in western Nebraska just in time for Christmas. The first cylinder record they play is the Sextet from Lucia. Mari remembers that moment of hearing Lucia as "what still seems to me the most beautiful singing in the world."
FACTOLA: "The Hurdy Gurdy Girl (a musical by Richard Carle which played in Boston in the summer of 1907) used an Edison Standard Phonograph in Act 1 to which one of the cast danced to its record.
FACTOLA: Edison's twelve one-reel moving picture play of the episodes of "What Happened to Mary" is the first serialized movie in the United States. With release of episode one starting July 26, 1912 to coincide with the serial story of the same name's publication in The Ladies' World magazine this serial became a popular culture marker. MoMA summarized this success as follows: "Starring the popular Mary Fuller as a foundling in search of her biological parents, the series was a sensation—inspiring fashion layouts, songs, a novelization, a board game, a Broadway play, and the 1913 sequel (now lost) Who Will Mary Marry?."
FACTOLA: "THE PHONOGRAPH GIRLS is the first play known in which the talking machine and its commercial environment has figured in a professional way and carrying off the honors." (The "talking machine" used was Columbia's Twentieth Century Graphophone. The commercial environment was a scene inside the interior of a phonograph store). The Talking Machine World, October 15, 1906 - (Source: The Phonograph Girls)
FACTOLA: The "BC" Columbia Graphophone was used by the Cameraphone Company in 1908 to combine recorded sound with moving pictures. A performer "speaks, and the words come from the Graphophone in perfect accordance with the movements of his lips....He sings his song with every appropriate gesture, the word words and music all the while coming from the Graphophone." One of the most successful of the combined songs and moving pictures is the famous "Smile, Smile, Smile" from Lew Field's latest production..." (Source: May 1908 The Columbia Record trade journal and courtesy of The Antique Phonograph Monthly). - (Source: The Phonograph Girls)
FACTOLA: "The Judge," an English play in 1890 used a phonograph "to provide the sound effects of a crying infant from off stage." This is believed to be the first use of a phonograph in a supporting role of a stage play. Source: "Edison in Hollywood" by Allen Koenigsberg, The Antique Phonograph, June 2016.
FACTOLA: "The Higham Reproducer, invented by Daniel Higham, was used in Higham's talking machine named the High-am-o-phone and was displayed at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904 as part of the exhibit of Columbia Phonograph Company records and machines. Higham's machine was noted on the exhibit's inventory sheet as "the loudest sound -reproducing machine in the world." (Courtesy APM 11:1, Allen Koenigsberg and Doug DeFeis).
FACTOLA 1: Jules Verne
It is noted by William Butcher in The Journal of Foreign Languages that the insertion by Verne of the phonograph in this novel as "a recent invention is the first time in any of his novels, as previously his preference had been for low technology like sledges or balloons or, just as often, no technology at all.)" (1)
In addition to Kin-Fo's phonograph..."there was hardly a modern scientific applicance that had not been adopted in his house; he had a telephone that placed him in communication with every department of the yament; he had electric bells fitted to every chamber;" (ibid, p.39)
FACTOLA 2: Edison-Hardy Phonograph
In the September, 2022 edition of the Antique Phonograph Allen Koenigsberg wrote that instead of "leaping into fantasy" about how Jules Verne would picture a mechanical machine for vocal preservation, he "instead portrayed a specific 'Edison-Hardy' incarnation." The woodcut for Verne's story was then compared by Koenigsberg with the "period catalog" from Charles Magne for the French "Phonographe Edison" made by Edouard Hardy for Edison to show the connection.
Catalog from Charles Magne of Edison-Hardy Phonograph (used with permission of Allen Koenigsberg)
FACTOLA: "between 1915 and 1920 the Edison company sponsored over four thousand tone tests and twenty-five different sets of artists were scheduled to perform more than two thousand tone tests in 1920 alone. The test groups toured towns, large and small, all across America to tout the wonders of the Edison Diamond Disc." (Courtesy Emily Thompson, “Machines, Music, and the Quest for Fidelity: Marketing the Edison Phonograph in America, 1877-1925”)
FACTOLA: The number of talking machines that used '-ola' as a brand name.
Every date identified in the Phonographia "On This Day" calendar is essentially a FACTOLA. The following, however, are FACTOLAS specific to holidays with examples of phonograph popular culture connections made with that holiday.
FACTOLA: January 1 Happy New Year and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: February 14 Valentine's Day and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: Easter and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: July 4th and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: Halloween and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: Thanksgiving and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: December 6 and 25 - Santa, Christmas and the Phonograph
FACTOLA: The number of talking machines that used 'phone' or 'graph' as a brand name
FACTOLA: On February 4, 2008, for the first time ever, NASA beamed a song directly into deep space using NASA's Deep Space Network. The song: Across the Universe by The Beatles.
RECORD AND ALBUM COVER FACTOLAS - A Gallery of Factolas based on album covers and records
FACTOLA: Yesterday by the Beatles - The most covered song in recording history"
FACTOLA: The album cover titled Pure Prairie League by the Pure Prairie League is based on Norman Rockwell's 1927 painting titled "Dreams of Long Ago."
FACTOLA: The album cover The Present by The Moody Blues is an example of double cover art. First it's an album cover for a vinyl record. Second it's an artwork 'cover' since it'ss based on Maxfield Parrish's 1922 painting Daybreak.
FACTOLA: The longest playing single on a 45 RPM record is the live version of Incident on 57th Street, B-Side of the Bruce Springsteen 45 RPM Fire, at 10 minutes and 3 seconds.
FACTOLA: The photograph for the Bob Dylan Bringing It All Back Home album cover was taken by photographer Daniel Kramer in the home of Dylan's manager Albert Grossman and "features Sally Grossman (wife of Dylan's manager Albert Grossman) lounging in the background."
FACTOLA: For her closing remarks in the 2008 Vice Presidential Debate (Biden vs. Palin), Sarah Palin paraphrased Ronald Reagan. The source of Palin's words were from a 1961 Reagan phonograph record titled Ronald Reagan speaks out against Socialized Medicine.
FACTOLA: Eddie Deezen, author of The Ambiguous History of the Hokey Pokey, concludes that the "earliest accurate record, so far, of the song we all know and love is from an account, dated 1857, of two sisters from Canterbury, England, on a trip to Bridgewater, New Hampshire...During their visit, they taught the locals a song that went something like this: "I put my right hand in, I put my right hand out, I give my hand a shake, shake, shake, And I turn myself about." Apparently, the performance of the song—called "Right Elbow In" and several verses long—was accompanied by "appropriate gestures" and was danced with a slow, rhythmic motion."
Recorded humor allowed the public to hear what they otherwise would not hear.
Recorded humor reinforced racial, ethnic and gender stereotypes.
Recorded humor could be heard by other comedians and then be copied, adapted or used to improve their own skills and style.
FACTOLA: The 150 Greatest Albums Made by Women compiled by NPR Music, July 24, 2017.
FACTOLA: Furthest Distance from Earth a Record played on a turntable - The Icarus and Third Man Records - July 2, 2016.
FACTOLA: iam8bit produces video game soundtracks on vinyl. The label sold 200,000 albums as of September 2019.
FACTOLA: There were at least 12 newspapers in the United States named the Phonograph between 1878 and 1889 in honor of Edison's December 6, 1877 invention of the Phonograph.
FACTOLA about Charles Batchelor's connection with the sewing machine industry:
Mr. Charles Batchelor (who would become Edison's chief assistant at Menlo Park and who stands next to him in the photograph taken at Mathew Brady Studio April 19,1878 of Edison with his tin-foil phonograph) was a very skillful mechanic who was sent "from England to superintend the setting up and adjusting of the automatic thread machinery for the Clark Thread Works."(1A)
FACTOLA: In the 1908 Bryan vs. Taft Presidential Election for the first time everyone had the means to hear the "exact words" of each Presidential candidate. "Now, for the first time, one can introduce the rival candidates for the Presidency in one's own home, can listen to their political views, expressed in their real voices, and make comparison." The Edison Phonograph Monthly, September 1908
FACTOLA: The first nickel-in-the-slot phonograph was installed November 23, 1889, by Louis Glass inside the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
FACTOLA: The tape cassette (a.k.a. compact cassette) was introduced by the Dutch company Royal Philips in September 1963.
FACTOLA: The Sony Walkman TPS-L2, the world's first low-cost personal stereo compact cassette tape player, went on sale in Japan on July 1, 1979. (Wikipedia)
FACTOLA: The Magnavox Magnavision model 8000 was the first reflective optical videodisc player to be released to the general public on December 15, 1978 at three stores in Atlanta, GA. (Courtesy LaserVision Landmarks)
FACTOLA: The RCA Selectavision VideoDisc player (which used its CED phonograph-like record and needle to play audio and video) went on sale March 22, 1981. Wikipedia
FACTOLA: In 2015, for the first time, streaming became the largest component of industry revenues, just slightly higher than digital downloads.
FACTOLA: In January 2017 Monopoly puts its eight tokens to an Internet vote asking what game pieces were worthy. All were on the table from its current classic pieces to more than 50 new options including a gramophone. The vote was conducted, however, the gramophone failed to get the needed votes. Three classics also lost: the Thimble, the Boot, and the Wheelbarrow.
FACTOLA: Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 which now travels in interstellar space carrying a phonograph record that is Earth's "message in the bottle" and "greetings from Earth."
FACTOLA: Voyager 1 launched on September 5, 1977 and like Voyager 2 is now travelling in interstellar space carrying a phonograph record that is Earth's "message in the bottle" and "greetings from Earth."
FACTOLA: Voyager 1 and 2 were launched within months of being exactly 100 years after the invention of the Phonograph by Thomas Alva Edison. Both carry their "Golden Record" that is designed to play audio at 16-2/3 RPM using a phonograph needle and also display images from the grooves of the record. The images, sounds and music on the Voyager's "Golden Record" are intended to represent life on planet Earth.
FACTOLA: The "Golden Record" may never be played. But there is still the mind-bending possibility that the Voyager record will exist longer than humans on Earth.
FACTOLA: On April 22, 1978 NBC's Saturday Night Live did a skit "Next Week in Review" which reported what would be the biggest news story of the year, namely that "a foreign planet" had sent a message to Earth "the FIRST positive proof that other intelligent beings inhabit the universe." They apparently had found the Voyager spacecraft, listened to its Golden Record and had now communicated four words to Earth: “Send More Chuck Berry”.
FACTOLA: On June 29, 1888, Handel's Israel in Egypt was recorded at The Crystal Palace in London, the earliest known recording of classical music.
FACTOLA: On December 6, 1877 at Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey Laboratory Thomas Alva Edison's Phonograph was said to be "finished" (1) and ready to be heard by the world.
FACTOLA: On December 7, 1877 Edison's infant invention was taken to the offices of Scientific American where the Phonograph introduced itself. This debut of the machine that Edison would later call his "favorite invention" and his "baby"(2), was subsequently described in the December 22, 1877 issue of Scientific American.
FACTOLA: The 1893 Bernese Alps Cyclorama at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago was the first World's Fair "multi-media attraction" to use recorded sound as part of its presentation with a milkmaid singing a Swiss ballad. The Cyclorama on the Midway Plaisance used a phonograph as part of its cycloramic form "to make the deception complete, as one's ears are greeted with the strains of a Swiss ballad seeming to proceed from the maid."
FACTOLA: The earliest example of a phonograph being part of a promotion but not what was being sold is a June 1, 1878 illustration in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. In it Uncle Sam is promoting the export of Mrs' Potts Sad Irons to Russia and his message to the Czar of their pending delivery is made by using the recently invented Edison tin-foil phonograph. The Philadelphia Mfg. Co. may have been making very good irons but the "delight and astonishment" of the Czar is clearly because of Edison's phonograph.
FACTOLA, April 14, 1894 - In the storefront of 1155 Broadway, New York City, the first commercial exhibition of Edison's Kinetoscope motion pictures opened in its Kinetoscope parlor on April 14, 1894.
The sculptured bust of Edison which was located in the front of the parlor was soon removed. According to Alfred O. Tate, Edison's Private Secretary, a few weeks after the opening "I received a message from Edison asking me to remove it. He thought it undignified."
It is unknown what Edison meant by "undignified" but ironically the first occupant of this storefront built in 1876 had been John Rogers, the famous artist known as the "people's sculptor" and his popular "Rogers Group" pieces. Rogers had his first floor studio at 1155 Broadway through 1879.